Frankenstein by Mary Shelley: Book Club, Study and Essay Topics

Topics for essays and discussion with links to character and plot summary of Mary Shelley's Frankenstein; or the Modern Prometheus.

Topic for discussion or Essays of Frankenstein; or the Modern Prometheus

Compare and contrast Robert Walton and Victor Frankenstein in the opening of the story and at the end of the story. How are their attitudes similar and how do their attitudes change at the end of the story?

Why is Frankenstein alarmed when Robert Walton expresses his ambitions?

The subtitle of Frankenstein is The Modern Prometheus; to whom was Shelley referring? How does Prometheus compare and contrast to the character to whom Shelley was referring. What was the fate of Prometheus?

What were the prevalent attitudes in England in the early 19th century? Do you believe that Shelley’s novel was a reflection of those attitudes?

There are clear biblical themes throughout the story. Give examples. How does Shelley use them. Does Victor Frankenstein have any reverence for God? Does he believe in God?

Is this book metaphorical? Explain.

Is this book an allegory? Explain.

What qualities of character does Victor Frankenstein have? Is he noble? A coward? Wise? Foolish?

What is Victor Frankenstein’s attitude toward life and death?

What does the monster want?

Is he justified in his revenge?

Is he inherently evil or does he become evil?

The title page contains a quote from Paradise Lost. How does this passage reflect the monster’s comprehensive world view, emotions, outlook and perceptions?

The three books that the monster found and read were Milton’s Paradise Lost, a volume of Plutarch’s Lives and Goeth’s The Sorrows of Werter. Why did Mary Shelley choose these?

What books would you have chosen and what would you anticipate the affect those books would have had on the monster’s outlook?

Did the monster develop a comprehensive world view? If so, describe it.

Did the monster have a soul?

Do all dogs go to heaven? (ok - that’s not a real question)

What is the monster’s primary complaint against Frankenstein?

What rights does the monster perceive he is due?

Did the monster receive justice?

Did Victor Frankenstein rightly suffer the consequences of his actions? Did he have the power to change things? At what point could he have or should he have taken a different path?

What are some contemporary bioethical issues in the news that might be relevant to discussions of the themes in this book?

What were the main themes in each of the three volumes of Frankenstein?

If you have seen any film adaptations of Frankenstein, how does it compare with the novel? Have you any thoughts on why the filmmaker excluded or included particular events or dialog from the novel?

Read Frankenstein Introduction and Brief Summary

Read Frankenstein Character Summary

Read Volume One Plot Summary

Read Volume Two Plot Summary

Read Volume Three Plot Summary


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The Emperors New Sonnet by Jose Garcia Villa: An Analysis

In: Books
A critical analysis of Villa's classic wordless poem.

The Poem:

The Emperor’s New Sonnet


Just a background on the author, Jose Garcia Villa was a Filipino poet, short-story writer, painter, and literary critic who was awarded the National Artist of the Philippines for literature in 1973. He was known for being one of the renowned “artsakists” of his time who believed that art should be for art’s sake. And although he advised his students that poems are “written with words, not ideas,” he released poems such as The Bashful One, which consists only of a comma, and of course, The Emperor’s New Sonnet, which contains nothing at all, other than the title.

On normal circumstances, I would go through a poem line per line in analyzing one, and see how every line would contribute to the overall meaning. However, the poem to be tackled has no meter, no extended metaphors, no symbolisms, nor any text whatsoever. All we are banking on is its title, which alludes to the popular children’s story The Emperor’s New Clothes, which was written by Hans Christian Anderson.

Hans Christian Anderson / Wikimedia

The story is an attack on snobbery and pretension, and makes fun of people who do not have their own say on what is beautiful and tend to rely on other people’s judgments before making their own. It tells its readers that sometimes, we need to view things as innocent as a child would so that we could plainly see what true beauty is, free from all social conditioning that often warps their perspective on things.

With this in mind, let us now tackle the poem by Jose Garcia Villa, which has no words at all. What we have here is something that tells readers that it is a poem, although in reality, there really is nothing. There is no beautiful weaving of words, and it seems like the poet is mocking the reader by telling them to accept the blankness as poetry, in the same way that the weavers the emperor in the story hired expects him to accept his invisible suit as one of the most beautiful in the world.

In all objectivity, there really is no poem in The Emperor’s New Sonnet, although it calls itself one. Although there are literary critics and intellectuals who can extract some meaning from the blankness, there would undoubtedly be that child in us that wants to shout out that this is not a poem, and that it is only a blank page.

We can probably borrow the moral lesson in the story and put it into the context of this poem. There are probably times when, like the characters in the story, we have felt the need to convince ourselves that a work of art is beautiful, just because some ruling body deemed it so, even though we ourselves did not genuinely appreciate it. There must have been some time when you came across some abstract painting and thought that it was something a child could have done, and yet you just kept mum about it, because it was supposedly created by a world-class painter. Or a time when an artsy-fartsy friend asked you what you thought about this foreign film you totally found boring, and answered that it was nice. Or a time in English class where you were forced to nod and say that you liked a certain short story, even though you did not understand a single thing from it.

Oftentimes we are too quick to suppress our own judgments; for fear that other people may find us “less-cultured” or even downright stupid if we would not agree with them. In effect, we no longer practice our critical thinking, thinking that anyway, there are authorities who can decide for us, and we wouldn’t mind being enslaved to their judgments because we can readily dismiss that they are right.

However, this shouldn’t be the case, and The Emperor’s Sonnet tells us this in its own eccentric way. It plays on how readers would think of it, on whether the blank space is a poem or not, while reminding them of the message in the story The Emperor’s New Clothes.

On why Jose Garcia Villa wrote this (if you would call that writing), I could make a guess. He was known to be one of the harshest critics of Filipino poetry in English in his time, and has angered many of those who received his critiques. And I wouldn’t exactly blame the subjects of his critiques for their reactions. To one literary collection, for example, he wrote: “The poetry you print is unforgivable. It stinks. My God, if I had judicial power, I’d throw you in jail for publishing such rot and exemplifying them before the public as good poetry, thus submerging the public still more.”

In one essay, he wrote that there wasn’t anyone who was educated enough in poetry in the Philippines. The country, according to him, was “deluged with poet-simpletons—triflers in verse, poets without crania—the producers of featherweight poetry.”

Perhaps it was his frustration with Philippine poetry in English that drove him to create The Emperor’s New Sonnet. Frustrated, or maybe even disgusted, with the praise that some of the Filipino poets were getting from the critics, he may have written the poem to target those who readily accept the so called “featherweight” poetry of his time, who were, perhaps, reading poetry in the same way that the emperor’s ministers and the townspeople were looking at the emperor’s “suit.” Perhaps with this poem of his, he sought to serve as the child in the story to challenge what he felt was a sorry state of Philippine poetry in his time.

Whether you’re still debating with yourself if this is a poem or not, it is undeniable that Villa’s The Emperor’s New Sonnet shall continue to provoke and baffle its readers for many years to come.


The Critical Villa: Essays in Literary Criticism by Jose Garcia Villa, compiled and edited by Jonathan Chua

The Life and Works of Rabindranath Tagore

In: Books
Rabindranath Tagore was the author of some of the greatest works in Literature and he was also the greatest Bengali writer of all time.

Rabindranath Tagore was one of the most famous Indian writers of all time. He is the only person who has written the National Anthems of two countries, which are India and Bangladesh.

He was born in 1861 to a rich Bengali family belonging to the newly created Brahmo Samaj. At the age of seventeen he was sent to England for his formal education in Law but he returned without a degree to pursue writing poetry, novels, dramas etc in India.

Tagore had written his first poem at the tender age of 8. After his arrival in India from England, he published many poems and short stories, but this was  primarily written in Bengali, so these works did not have a wide appeal beyond the confines of Bengal.

His full-fledged writing Career had begun when he went to look after his family estates in modern day Bangladesh. The works of Rabindranath Tagore gained a wider audience after his famous Collection of Poems; "Gitanjali" was translated by him into English and then published in the year 1912.

He was the author of many famous Novels, such as Gora, which is considered to be one of his best works and is the  largest one, concentrating on the life of people in the Bengali society of British India, which was divided into Hindus and the Bramho Samaj. Gora is also considered by many to be an Epic. Other famous works of his like Ghaire Baire and Chokher Bali have been made into movies.

Famous short stories by him include "Cabuliballah" or "The Fruitseller from Kabul" and "We crown thee King". Popular Dramas by him inculde "Raja", "Visarjan", "Valmiki Pratibha" etc.

For his excellent work, the British Crown knighted him in 1915. But due to his political views, which were critical of the British Rule in India, especially after the Jallianwala Bagh massacre, he later returned his Knighthood.

After handling his estates, Tagore set up the famous Santiniketan Ashram where he then continued to live. From there, he set up "Sriniketan" or The Institute for Rural Reconstruction and he was also responsible the creation of "Vishwa Bharti", a college that has now become a University.

Many of Tagore's poems have been turned into songs with music composed for them. He also wrote Non-fiction and he also wrote an essay, titled, "Nationalism in India". He died in the city of his birth, Kolkata(Calcutta) on 7th August, 1941.

The Theme Love and Hate in Shakespeare's 'Merchant of Venice'

In: Books
The Merchant of Venice is a play both about love and hate. Shakespeare projects these emotions through the Jewish and Christian characters and the settings for the play, Belmont and Venice. Love and Hate are the backbone of the play and collectively they form the dominant theme.Shakespeare thus proves he is a master of human emotions and their presentation on the stage.

William Shakespeare wrote the play "The Merchant of Venice" during the years 1596-98. Shakespeare was not a simple dramatist but a man who presented human emotions in a subtle way. His play the Merchant of Venice covers the entire gamut of human emotions.

He writes about love, revenge, evil and friendship. The story is about, Shylock a wealthy Jew, who lends 3000 ducats to his enemy Antonio. Shakespeare creates an enticing tale. Antonio is rich, yet he is forced to borrow money from Shylock as all his money is locked up in ships which are far away. Antonio for this reason has to take a loan from Shylock as he wants to help out his friend, Bassanio. Antonia is unaware that this act could cause his death. 

Shylock is one of the few characters created by Shakespeare who personifies evil. He is a malevolent and blood-thirsty old man. He is hates his enemies and has no compassions or humanity towards them. He is the opponent  of Antonio, who is naive and good. Antonio is the man; who has to prepare his defense against the “devil" Shylock.

The other dominant theme of Shakespeare’s play is love. Among the various themes presented in the Merchant of Venice the most important is the nature of true love.  Shakespeare presents love in all its dimensions. The friendship love is shown through Antonio towards Bassanio, romantic love is shown through Portia and Bassanio and self love is shown through Shylock.

But overall the theme of romantic love runs as an undercurrent in the play. Portia is rich but lonely and the secret to her heart is the casket.  Shakespeare shows the reader how different people view true love through a variety of suitors and caskets. He also shows what is most important to the suitors and in some cases it is not true love, but material things and outward appearance.

The first suitor who tries to win Portia's hand is the Prince of Morocco.  Shakespeare presents him as an arrogant man concerned with outward appearance, and not true love. Portia falls in love with Bassanio and shows her love by hinting which casket has the key to her lonely heart. Shakespeare also shows that love transcends all boundaries when the daughter of Shylock Jessica elopes with Lorenzio, a Christian.

When William Shakespeare wrote, the Merchant ff Venice, he created a female character that has a very great influence on the play. In the Merchant of Venice, Portia is a woman that saves the life of a man using her head. A similar character is Beatrice, from ‘Much Ado about Nothing’. Both of these ladies add to the main theme of the plays because of their brains, and smart remarks, as well as showering love and care.

The Merchant of Venice is a play both about love and hate. Shakespeare projects these emotions through the Jewish and Christian characters and the settings for the play, Belmont and Venice. Love and Hate are the backbone of the play and collectively they form the dominant theme.

What Are The Two Types of Sonnets?

In: Books
A description of the sonnet including a discussion of the Petrarchan and Shakespearean forms.

What is a Sonnet?

A sonnet is a specific type of poem. It has 14 lines, and is written in iambic pentameter. There are two types of sonnet: Italian (or Petrarchan), and English (or Shakespearean). The type of sonnet is determined by its rhyme scheme.

Iambic Pentameter

Each line of a sonnet is divided into 10 syllables and 5 iambs. In poetry, a pair of syllables is also called a foot. An iamb is a special pair of syllables, one unstressed and the other stressed.

The iambs give the sonnet a very recognizable rhythm when it's spoken aloud. To hear what iambic pentameter sounds like, say the first line of Shakespeare's Sonnet 101 out loud:

O truant Muse what shall be thy amends

This ebb and flow from stressed to unstressed syllables is iambic pentameter in action.

Besides using a very specific poetic meter, sonnets also have recognizable rhyme patterns. These patterns determine whether a sonnet is Petrarchan or Shakespearean.


Petrarchan (Italian) Sonnet

The Petrarchan (named after the 14th century Italian poet Francesco Petrarch), or Italian, sonnet has an octave (or octet) of eight lines followed by a sestet of 6 lines. The octet and the sestet have their own rhyme schemes. There are several possible rhyme patterns for an Italian sonnet. The most common patterns for the octet are: abbaabba and abbacddc. The sestet has a pattern of defdef or dedede. Taken together, the most basic rhyme patterns for a Petrarchan sonnet are: abbaabba defdef, and abbacddc dedede.

There are many variations of the rhyme scheme in a Petrarchan sonnet, which is one of the characteristics that makes it different from the Shakespearean sonnet form.

Shakespearean (English) Sonnet

The other main form of sonnet is the Shakespearean, or English, sonnet. As the name suggests, this form was used by William Shakespeare, though he did not create it. This type of sonnet differs from the Petrarchan sonnet in both its structure and its rhyme scheme.

Shakespearean sonnets are divided into three quatrains of four lines each followed by a couplet of two lines. And unlike the Petrarchan sonnet, Shakespearean sonnets have a rhyme pattern that never varies: abab, cdcd, efef, gg

Mastering the Basics

Of course, recognizing the poetic meter and the rhyme scheme of sonnets is just the beginning. Knowing the basics of this influential form of poetry is just a springboard to discovering its true and enduring beauty.


Great Villains of Myths

In: Books
Everyone likes villains, because they make stories interesting, exciting, and fun to read. Without villains, all stories, whether real life situations or fictional tales, would be boring and lifeless. We will take a closer look at ten memorable villains found in some of the greatest myths of the ancient world.


In Persian mythology or Zoroastrianism, Ahriman, also known as Angra Mainyu, was the personification of evil that introduced all kinds of disasters and ills into the world. He battled against his spirit-twin Spenta Mainya, the personification of good, who assisted Ahura Mazda become the final victor in the cosmic war.


Also known as the "Evil Eye", Balor was the Irish mythic god of death, who, as had been prophesied, was ultimately slain with a slingshot by his grandson Lugh, the god of light. He was a king of a race of gigantic warriors called Formorians; he had one huge leg and one eye, which was kept shut except during battle because anything he glanced at would instantly die.


Coyolxauhqui was the moon goddess in Aztec mythology. She, together with her brothers (the stars) was just about to attack their pregnant mother Coatlicue (the earth), her brother Huitzilopochtli (the sun god) suddenly sprang from her mother's womb fully armored. Coyolxauhqui was eventually slain by Huitzilopochtli, who cut off her head and threw it into the sky forming the moon.


(Loki as depicted on an 18th century Icelandic manuscript) Image source

As the god of mischief in Norse mythology, Loki tricked the blind Hod to create and shoot a magical arrow made of mistletoe, with which to kill the otherwise invincible Balder, the god of innocence and light. This trickster god, known as "the Sly One," can shapeshift into various animal forms, including changing his sex.


In the Hindu epic "Ramayana," Ravana was the demon-king of Lanka, who was depicted as having 10 heads and 20 hands. He lusted after Sita and held her in captivity for many years, often threateningly urging her to marry him but was refused every time. He was killed in a violent war by Rama, an avatar of Vishnu, in his effort to rescue his wife Sita.


Mordred was the son of King Arthur and a knight of the Round Table, who usurped the throne of England when his father and the rest of the knights pursued Lancelot into France. His rebellion caused the downfall of his father in the Battle of Camlann, where he was ultimately defeated and killed, while his father was mortally injured.



Considered to be the embodiment of evil, Seth, the Egyptian god of chaos, was often depicted with a curved snout, sort of like an aardvark, erect-tipped ears, forked tail and a body similar to a greyhound. He murdered his brother Osiris by cutting his body into pieces, which he cast into the Nile to prevent its resurrection.


The sky god Anu's daughter, Lamashtu was the Sumerian demon goddess, who was often portrayed as having a hairy body, lion's head, donkey's ears, long fingernails and bird's legs with sharp claws. Her modus operandi would include sneaking into a room of a pregnant woman to touch her tummy 7 times killing the baby; or feed the new born baby with her poisonous breast milk.


A personification of evil according to Buddhist myth, Mara gave visions of lovely women attempting to seduce Siddharta, later Gautama Buddha, who was meditating under the Bo tree in order to hinder his enlightenment. She was regarded as the source of all misfortune, wickedness, annihilation and death.


(Odysseus in the cave of Polyphemus by Jacob Jordaens, first half of 17th century) Image source

In Homer's "Odyssey," Odysseus and his men feasted on the food they found in a cave which happened to belong to Polyphemus, who proceeded to trap and eat several of them. Polyphemus was a cyclops, who was offered wine by the crafty Odysseus, who then used a sharpened pole to blind his only eye when he became drunk and fell asleep before escaping with his men.

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Contemporary Writers' Criticisms of Charles Dickens

In: Books
Charles Dickens was the most popular novelist of his day, but many of his fellow writers were critical of his approach.

Charles Dickens was the most widely-read author of his day, from his breakthrough at the age of 24 with The Pickwick Papers up until his death at age 58. Yet, like most purveyors of popular culture, he was often criticized by more intellectual elements of the reading public. Indeed, many of Dickens’s writer contemporaries were somewhat dismissive of his talents.

Thackeray's Love of Dickens Work

Of Dickens’ great English contemporaries, only William Makepeace Thackeray was unstinting in his praise. On reading A Christmas Carol (1844), Thackeray said: “It seems to me a national benefit, and to every man or woman who reads it a personal kindness.” On reading an installment of Dombey and Son in 1847, Thackeray burst into his and Dickens’s publisher’s office and exclaimed: “There’s no writing against such power as this – one has no chance!” Thackeray and Dickens were never personally close, and fell out in the late 1850s, becoming reconciled shortly before Thackeray’s 1863 death.

Wikimedia public domain

Eliot and Lewes: Voices of the Intelligentsia

Less impressed by Dickens was George Eliot (Mary Anne Evans), as she made clear in an 1856 essay. Here she admitted that Dickens was adept at rendering the “external traits” of characters, he had no proficiency in drawing “psychological character”. She went on to say: “He scarcely ever passes from the humourous and external to the emotional and tragic, without becoming as transcendent in his unreality as he was a moment before in his artistic truthfulness.”

Eliot’s partner was the literary critic G. H. Lewes, who wrote one of the most influential critiques of Dickens in 1872, two years after Dickens’s death. In “Dickens in Relation to Criticism”, Lewes allowed that Dickens was great in “fun”, and possessed a “glorious energy of imagination”, so intense that for Lewes it seemed hallucinatory. Then Lewes went on to accuse Dickens’s work of an absence of thought, and noting “his was an animal intelligence, i.e., restricted to perceptions”. Lewes concludes his reflections on Dickens thus:

We do not turn over the pages in search of thought, delicate psychological observation, grace of style, charm of composition; but we enjoy them like children at play, laughing and crying at the images before us.

This is, at best, a back-handed compliment, with a notable element of condescension, and most modern commentators have found in Dickens far more psychological depth than Lewes or Eliot allowed.

Bleak House: John Stuart Mill and Charlotte Bronte

The publication of Bleak House in 1852-53 brought Dickens criticism from several angles. Renowned philosopher and social commentator John Stuart Mill disliked the book intensely: “Much the worst of his things and the only one of them I altogether dislike, has the vulgar impudence in this way to ridicule rights of women. It is done in the very vulgarest way, just the style in which vulgar men used to ridicule ‘learned ladies’ as neglecting their children and household.” This refers to the character of Mrs. Jellyby, the “telescopic philanthropist” obsessed with the deprived people of the Borrioboola-Gha region, while her own children live in squalor and neglect.

Charlotte Bronte was also unimpressed by Bleak House. On reading the first instalment, she announced of the presentation of the central character Esther Summerson: “It seems to me too often weak and twaddling – an amiable nature is caricatured – not faithfully rendered.” This is interesting, as Esther Summerson, in her emotional reserve and self-denying nature, and her propensity for self-deprecation, seems to owe something to Bronte’s depiction of Jane Eyre, though Dickens never acknowledged an influence.

Anthony Trollope and Mr. Popular Sentiment

Anthony Trollope satirized Dickens in his novel The Warden as Mr. Popular Sentiment, whose “good poor people are so very good; his hard rich people so very hard; and the genuinely honest so very honest”, who is more interested in “imaginary agonies… than true sorrows”, and who engages in ridicule rather than argument. But while noting that Mr. Popular Sentiment’s heroes and heroines “walk on stilts”, he admitted that his secondary characters “are as natural as though one met them in the street… and will live till the names of their callings shall be forgotten in their own, and Bucket and Mrs. Gamp will be the only words left to us to signify detective police officer or a monthly nurse.” By mentioning two Dickens characters by name, Trollope dispels any lingering doubt about the true identity of Mr. Popular Sentiment.

So Dickens did not please all his contemporaries; though there were none who denied that he had great gifts of imagination, many felt decidedly ambivalent about his talents, and, contrary to his current position at the pinnacle of novelists in the English language, his work was not considered to belong to the highest rank, but to be something of a guilty pleasure, that failed to provide nourishment for the higher faculties of the human mind.

Frankenstein by Mary Shelley: Plot Summary of Volume Two

In: Books
The tale of Frankenstein touches on issues of bioethics, morality, religion and existentialism. Here is a summary of Volume II of the three volume story of Frankenstein.

Mary Shelley's Frankenstein was written in three volumes. Links at the bottom of the article will take you to the summaries of Volume one and two as well as to an introduction and character summary.

Plot Summary Volume II

After a time of grieving with his family over the death of William, Victor sets out on a journey, not to pursue the monster but to find relief from his despair. He sets out toward the Swiss Alps on horseback and finds that his spirit is lightened by the magnificence and beauty of the mountains. It has been two months since the execution of Justine.

Victor decides to make an ascent to a glacier field during a particularly cloudy day. It is an invigorating and soul satisfying climb and his heart is overwhelmed with joy over the sight of the mountains beyond. As he sits in a recess of the rock he utters these words “Wandering spirits, if indeed ye wander, and do not rest in your narrow beds, allow me this faint happiness, or take me, as your companion, away from the joys of life.” It is at this moment that he sees the figure of a man approaching him across the ice at superhuman speed. As the man gets closer Victor realizes with rage and horror that it is the monster. He resolves to wait and engage the monster in mortal combat.

When the monster arrives Victor threatens to kill him. The monster responds, “All men hate the wretched; how, then, must I be hated, who am miserable beyond all living things!” “You purpose to kill me. How dare you sport thus with life? Do your duty towards me, and I will do mine towards you and the rest of mankind. If you will comply with my conditions, I will leave them and you at peace; but if you refuse, I will glut the maw of death, until it be satiated with the blood of your remaining friends.

Victor lunges at the monster intending to kill him but the monster is superior and eludes him. The monster declares that his life is precious to him and he will defend it but he has no wish to be in opposition to his creator. “I am thy creature”. He tells Victor that he will be docile and mild to his natural lord and king if Victor will only fulfill his duty. He asserts that he is due the justice, clemency and affection of his creator. “I ought to be thy Adam, but I am rather the fallen angel, whom thou drivest from joy for no misdeed” He claims that he was, in the beginning, benevolent and good but that the exclusion from the joys of life has made him a fiend. His desolation and pain are apparent as he begs compassion and goodness from Frankenstein. 

A long dialog ensues between the monster, as he defends himself and asserts his rights to compassion and joy. Frankenstein rejects and curses him. The monster insists that Victor accompany him to his hut to hear the tale of how he came to gain the knowledge of language and life and joy. Victor complies with the request out of a sense of duty and indeed begins to feel his responsibility to his creature.

The monster and Frankenstein arrive at the hut that the monster calls home. A fire is lit and the monster begins his monolog of remembrances of his creation and the dawning of his awareness and enlightenment. He reflects on the joy of living and the excitement of discovering and experiencing his sensory faculties and his growing comprehension of the world into which he has come.

He turns then to the dark and hateful experiences that have caused him to flee into isolation. He has been chased and attacked with stones and weapons and reviled whenever he has sought contact with humans. It is in fear that he has sought refuge in a hovel adjacent to a cottage where the De Lacey family dwells. He dwells on his isolation “no Eve soothed my sorrows nor shared my thoughts; I was alone. I remembered Adam’s supplication to His Creator. But where was mine? He had abandoned me, and in the bitterness of my heart I cursed him.”

In hiding, he begins his observation of the family through a hole in the wall between his hovel and the main cabin and learns a great deal about the normal relationships among people. He observes a poor but gentle family and learns about reading and music and affection. He is able to learn language through his close observation. He becomes fond of the family and finds ways to help them secretly. He dreams of the day that he can reveal himself to them and win their affection in spite of his dreadful appearance.

The day arrives when he decides to reveal himself. He first approaches the blind father when the others are gone. He appeals to his sense of charity and love for others. The old man is warm and encouraging to the monster. In the midst of their conversation the others return and upon entering the cottage are horrified. Felix strikes out at the monster beating him while the women scream and faint. Although the monster could easily break the bones of Felix and destroy him, he flees instead in sorrow and pain.

The failure of his efforts to connect with the family has driven him to deep despair and rage at his creator. As he processes the events he decides that he will make one more effort to win the hearts of the De Lacey’s. He returns to the cottage but finds that they have moved out. In a rage he burns it and destroys the garden that was regularly tended by Felix. He leaves the region to find Victor Frankenstein.

As he reaches Geneva he encounters a young boy playing and decides that perhaps he can make friends with the child. When he reveals himself to the child the child begins screaming and the monster picks him up and tries to quiet him. The child tells him that his father is M. Frankenstein and that he will come to rescue him. When the monster discovers the child’s identity he kills him and finds pleasure in the revenge he has taken upon Victor. He leaves the dead child and flees into the mountains.

Now that the monster has told his story to Victor he makes his demand. He tells Victor that he wants a wife. The wife is to be similar in nature to himself. When Victor completes this task the monster promises he will disappear to the jungles of South America and he will never bother mankind again. He pleads with Victor to grant this request out of mercy and compassion. Victor is reluctant to relent to the monster’s request and argues that if he creates a second monster then they will bring more destruction and grief to humanity. The monster vows that he will kill everyone that Victor loves if he does not undertake this task.

Victor relents and he and the monster part company. Victor and the monster have spent the entire day together on the glacier and it takes Victor until late at night before he makes his way back to the village and ultimately home to his family and to make plans for the commencement of his task.

Proceed to Summary of Volume III

Return to Summary of Volume I

Proceed to Introduction to Frankenstein

Proceed to Character Summary of Frankenstein

The Salem Witch Trials Vs Arthur Miller's The Crucible

In: Books
The purpose of this article is to investigate the events that led up to the Salem witch trials, representatives of the government, legal and religious institutions that presided over the trials, and the outcome of the trials. The historical inaccuracies embodied in Arthur Miller's dramatic presentation the Salem witch trials, entitled The Crucible, will also be examined.

The Salem Witch trials of the 1690’s had an enormous impact on the colonial community of Salem, Massachusetts.  Twenty (20) people died during the hysteria.  The Salem witch trials were such a miscarriage of justice that researchers, 300 years after the events, continue to speculate on the causes and the impact they had the community of Salem and the colonies in the New World.  

The purpose of this article is to investigate the events that led up to the Salem witch trials, representatives of the government, legal and religious institutions that presided over the trials, and the outcome of the trials.  Also, the rationale for the historical inaccuracies embodied in Arthur Miller’s dramatic presentation of the Salem witch trials, entitled The Crucible, will be presented.  

Research reveals several suspected causes for the Salem witch trials. While some people may consider the residents of Salem, Massachusetts as ignorant, cruel and superstitious, the truth is that they were just like people of our modern times with fears, desires and greed. These human emotions, combined with religious fervor and a lack of understanding of disease, contributed to the hysteria that made the Salem witch trials possible. The stresses of the poor economic conditions, frontier wars and conflict among the Salem church congregation’s members have also been sighted as factors that contributed to the witch hunts.  Stories of strange illnesses, night meetings in the woods, demonic possession, voodoo, and ghostly visitations culminated in the trials during the spring and summer of 1692.  Not much about this tragedy was predictable or logical! 

The colony of Salem began as a small Puritan settlement under British rule in 1629. In 1641 England made witchcraft a capital crime that was punishable by death. This was the legal foundation that made the Salem witch trial possible. 

The winter of 1692 was exceptionally cold. A young girl named Betty Parris began to have spasms. The illness was accompanied by high fever and pain throughout her body.  It was reported that she “dashed about” and “dove under furniture”.  The local physician, Doctor Griggs, suggested that Betty may have been practicing witchcraft.  According to Dr. Griggs, this could have caused Betty’s strange behavior.  

In the next few weeks, Dr. Griggs saw similar behaviors in other young women in Salem.  One of the girls was Elizabeth Hubbard. By late February, church clergymen and the townspeople had become involved and pressured the 12-year old Elizabeth to identify who had caused her to behave so strangely. Elizabeth blamed Tituba, an Indian slave from Barbados, for her behaviors and illness. She also accused Sarah Good and Sarah Osborne of practicing witchcraft. On February 29, 1692, arrest warrants were issued for Tituba, Sarah Good and Sarah Osborne.  

As the number of allegations of witchcraft rose, Governor Phips saw the need to create a new court just to handle the witchcraft cases.  Five judges were appointed.  The magistrates included Cotton Mather, John Hathorne and Jonathan Corwin. William Stoughton, who was passionate about cleansing the land of witches and witchcraft, was Chief Justice.   

Bridget Bishop was the first accused witch to be brought to trial. She was almost sixty years old. Bridget was the owner of a tavern.  She served alcoholic drinks even on Sundays.  It was reported the she was “critical of her neighbors” and often paid her bills late.  Accused witches had no legal counsel and could not have witnesses to testify about their character.  Bridget was found guilty of practicing witchcraft and was sentenced to death by the jury. Chief Justice Stoughton signed the death warrant on June 10, 1692 and Bridget Bishop was hanged on Gallows Hill. 

Giles Corey refused to stand trial after he and his wife were accused of being witches. They and were sent to prison.  A conviction would mean that his farm would be taken over by the state of Massachusetts.  By refusing to go to trial, Giles hoped that everything he had worked for in his 80 years would go to his family members.  However, the legal sentence for his refusal was to be crushed to death.  It took two days for Corey to die under the pressure of huge boulders.  His wife, Martha, was hanged three days later along with seven other convicted witches.  These were the last victims of the Salem witch hunt. 

The tragedy of the Salem witch trials destroyed the lives many innocent people.


Some of the significant characters in the trials were the following:The accusers included Abigail Williams, Ann Putman, Mercy Lewis, Betty Parris, Mary Walcott, Sarah Bibber, Elizabeth Hubbard, and Susannah Sheldon. 

Abigail Williams, considered to be a leader among the accusers, was about 12 years old in 1692.  She lived with her uncle, the Rev. Samuel Parris.  She made forty-one (41) complaints of witchcraft against residents of the town.  Martha Corey, George Burroughs, Bridget Bishop, Elizabeth and John Proctor, Mary Easty, John Willard, Mary Witheridge, and Rebecca Nurse were some of her chosen suspects.  With the support of Salem community members, Abigail gave testimony in court against seven of the people.  Without the legal complaints of the adults, Abigail’s testimony would not have been heard in court because she was a minor. 

Salem citizens were accused of witchcraft for a wide variety of reasons.  For example, Elizabeth Proctor was accused of witchcraft, because Abigail was seeking revenge and wanted to get rid of John Proctor’s wife after having an affair with him and falling in love with him. 

As for Goody Glover, she was accused of being a witch because children would get sick when they were around her. 

In the case of John Proctor, he was accused of being a witch because he protested against the examination of his pregnant wife who was being charged for witchcraft.  

Overall, many researchers have concluded that greed and jealousy caused the poorer members of the Salem community to create outlandish charges against the wealthier members of the community in order to confiscate their real estate and possessions. In some cases, relatives were accused of witchcraft in order for their progeny to claim their inheritance sooner, rather than later. 

It took many people to fulfill numerous roles for such a travesty as the Salem witch trials to take place.  Key to the drama is the prosecutors and the magistrates who were responsible for conducting the legal proceedings.  Magistrates, John Hathorne and Jonathan Corwin, conducted examinations of Tituba, the Indian slave who worked for Reverend Parris, and others.  Judge William Stoughton   was an enthusiastic witch hunter. Other judges included Samuel Sewall and Cotton Mather. The courts were responsible for determining the guilt or innocence of those accused of being witches.  As one of the most respected and educated judges, Cotton Mather advised the magistrates to allow evidence presented by “afflicted accusers” (spectral evidence).  The nature of the evidence admitted by the judges and magistrates also included the “touch test” (elimination of contortions and other afflictions by touching a witch) and “witches’ marks” (moles or other body marks and deformities).  Hearsay and gossip, too, were considered as credible evidence to prove that someone was a witch. 


While the Salem witch trials lasted less than a year, they left their mark on the history of the young developing nation to become known as the United States of America. By the time the trials came to an end, over 200 people were accused of witchcraft. Twenty (20) people had been killed: 19 were hanged and one crushed to death. 

Many of the 200 people that were accused of witchcraft were sent to prison.  Prisons of the period were horrible, filthy, places. Several of the accused witches died in the Salem jail while awaiting their trial.  Others escaped death by hanging only to die in the horrid conditions of the prison. There was no sanitation system.  Prisoners were fortunate if they had a small chamber pot to use as a toilet. The small cells were filled with human excrement and horrible smells. There was no water for washing clothes or bathing. Prisoners had to pay for sheets, food and water. Few prisoners could afford such items because their jailers stole any money they had. Children and adults were kept in the same miserable conditions. 

Historians have examined and attempted to interpret this period in American history from various points of views.  One of the perspectives that sheds some light on what really happened in Salem is related to the economic status of the various factions in the Salem community. Scholars have noted differences between the accused and the accusers.  Most of the accused lived to the south side of Salem, and were generally more prosperous than the accusers.  In a number of cases, accusing families would benefit from the death of the suspected witch.  They would be able to claim the property of the accused after they were convicted and put to death.  

Also, the accused and the accusers were on opposite sides when the church congregation split over religious doctrine. The church schism that split the Salem community occurred just before the outbreak of allegations of witchcraft.  While many of the accused witches supported the former minister (George Burroughs), the families of the accusers, for the most part, wanted Rev. Burroughs to leave Salem.  

Thus, these two perspectives seem to offer some explanation of the events surrounding the Salem trials. Disputes over property and religious beliefs may have been enough to motivate the citizens of Salem to take drastic measures—to contrive allegations of witchcraft against their neighbors and fellow townsfolk. Greed and jealousy could move human beings to such evil deeds.  It was actually a rather ingenious plot because everything was sanctioned by the courts and approved by the church. These were the most powerful and respected institutions in the society. 

 After the surviving witches were released from the prison, it is reported that there was a period of atonement, when the village attempted to normalize and reunite. Samuel Sewall, one of the judges, issued a public confession of guilt and he apologized for his role in the witch-hunt. Several jurors admitted that they were "sadly deluded and mistaken" in their judgments about the guilt of their fellow citizens. Governor Phips blamed William Stoughton for madness and all of the horrific hangings. William Stoughton refused to acknowledge any wrong doing and felt that he had not been allowed to complete his mission to "clear the land of witches”. The citizens of Pennsylvania responded by electing Stoughton to replace Phips as the next Governor of Massachusetts. 

Historical events are often the source of material for literary works.  Such is the case of The Crucible, a book written by Arthur Miller.  The Crucible dramatizes and illustrates the events of the Salem witch trials. 

According to Salem witch trial historian, Margo Burns, TheCrucible contains several misrepresentations of the actual historical events.  Burns reports that some of the significant inaccuracies in The Crucible include the following: 

First, Miller portrays Abigail as a young woman of 17 or 18 years of age.  In reality, Abigail Williams was only 11 or 12 years old at the time of the trials.  This detail could significantly alter the plot and the events of the drama. 

Second, Arthur Miller characterizes Tituba as a slave of African heritage.  However, the documented facts show that Tituba was an Indian from the Caribbean island of Barbados.  Miller seemed to use an American stereotype in this case. 

Third, Miller chose to omit certain key characters from his play.  One of the main characters who does not appear in the drama is Cotton Mather. 

Miller does choose to name many of his characters after real people who participated in the Salem witch trials, but he uses his artistic freedom in assigning motivation to his characters. 

In conclusion, the Salem witch trials of 1692 were very tragic. Numerous innocent people died for their cause or for false accusation of witchcraft. Many people were involved in the trials, which made it even more important and a big deal to the Salem society. Finally the outcomes of the trials were disastrous. Their neighbors with the approval of the court and the church killed twenty people.  We must be aware that when the Salem witches disappeared, witch hunting in America did not end. There have been reoccurrences of similar events during the hunt for Communists during the McCarthy era of the 1950’s.  Such events could happen again if we cannot break free of prejudices and irrational fears.  Every man and woman has a right to believe what he or she wants, and they should not be punished for it. This is a basic freedom provided in the Constitution of the United States.  Each new generation must learn the lessons of history or risk repeating the same mistakes.  The Salem witch trials should warn us that we must remain vigilant to safeguard our system of justice. 


Boyer, Paul and Nissenbaum, Stephen, eds., Salem-Village Witchcraft: A Documentary Record of Local Conflict in Colonial New England (1972).

Burns, Margo. “Arthur Miller's The Crucible: Fact & Fiction.” 17th Century Colonial

New England. 24 Oct. 2003. 29 Oct. 2005 < fiction.shtml>.

Burr, George Lincoln, Narratives of the Witchcraft Cases, 1648 -1706 (1992).

Coventry, William W., Demonic Possession on Trial: Cases Studies from Modern England and Colonial America, 1593-1692 (2003).

DeRosa, Robin, The Making of Salem: The Witch Trials in History, Fiction and Tourism "History and the Whore: Arthur Miller's The Crucible", pp. 132-140 (2009).

Discovery Channel, "The Salem Witchcraft Trials" (50 minutes)

History Channel, "Salem Witchcraft Trials" (50 minutes)(1998).

LeBeau, Bryan, The Story of the Salem Witch Trials (1997). Norton, Mary Beth. In the Devil's Snare: The Salem Witchcraft Crisis of 1692 (2002).

PBS Home Video, "Three Sovereigns for Sarah" (180 minutes)(1986).

New World Video, "The Witches of Salem: The Horror and the Hope" (35 minutes) (1972).

Roach, Marilynne, The Salem Witchcraft Trials: A Day-to-Day Chronicle of a Community Under Siege.

Silverman, Kenneth, The Life and Times of Cotton Mather (1970).

Weisman, Richard, Witchcraft, Magic, and Religion in 17th Century Massachusetts. University of Massachusetts Press, Amherst (1984).

Eragon By Christopher Paolini: A Brief Summary Of The Book

In: Books
A brief summary of the book Eragon, written by Christopher Paolini. One fateful day, while Eragon is out hunting in a treacherous mountain valley, he stumbles onto a beautiful polished stone. He thinks of selling it to pay for some meat for his family, but when the stone turns out to be a dragon egg, Eragon

3-Sentence Summary - One fateful day, while Eragon is out hunting in a treacherous mountain valley, he stumbles onto a beautiful polished stone. He thinks of selling it to acquire some money for his family, but when the stone turns out to be a dragon egg, Eragon’s life is shattered. Overnight, Eragon becomes an idolized hero and is thrust into a life of power struggles and intrigue.

Full Summary

The story takes place in the magical realm of Alagaesia. The main character of the book is Eragon, an ordinary farmer’s boy, who needs to get food on the table. He lives with his cousin, Roran, and his uncle, Garrow.  One day, while Eragon is out hunting in an untamed mountain, he finds a sapphire-blue stone lying in a destroyed glen. Eragon, thinking he could sell the stone in exchange for some meat, takes it back to his uncle’s farm.

Little does he know, however, that the small-stone like thing will change his life for ever. When the stone splits open and a dragon hatchling emerges, suddenly everything in Eragon's life shifts abruptly. And when some strange bird-like creatures, called the Ra’zac, arrive at the local village, destruction follows. Before Eragon and his dragon, Saphira, could intervene, Garrow is found dead at their farm.  Eragon, Saphira and the village story-teller, Brom set out, seeking vengeance on the Ra’zac, pursuing them across half of Alagaesia.

Their journey is filled with strange adventures and Brom's arduous dragonrider training for Eragon.  In his training, Eragon discovers the true meaning of absolute power and destruction. Along the way, Eragon discovers a disturbing reality; King Galbatorix, ruler of most of Alagaesia, is using monsters to brutally murder his own people for political reasons. More importantly, Eragon finds out that both King Galbatorix and a rebel faction known as the Varda want to capture or control him, as he is the last free dragonrider in known existence. When Eragon and Brom reach inhabited cities or towns they never seem to find rest, for the King’s men are in every crook and cranny.

Eragon and his dragon Saphira in their travels, from the 2006 motion picture film - Image Source

When Eragon and Brom reach a strange city where the Ra’zac where rumoured to be located, Eragon finds that Galbatorix’s tyranny is more pronounced there, than in other towns and cities. While Eragon takes a stroll around the city, he unintentionally finds the Ra’zac. In a flash, Eragon and Brom find themselves being hunted by Ra’zac, their fortunes abruptly changed. In the dead of night, the Ra’zac ambush Eragon, Saphira and Brom unawares.

At this moment, a mysterious stranger named Murtagh charges the Ra’zac from the shadows, just as they finish chaining Eragon, Saphira and Brom. As the Ra’zac are fleeing, one of them desperately hurls a knife at Eragon. With surprising strength, Brom flings himself in front of Eragon, taking the blow. Soon afterwards, Brom dies from the wound. In enormous grief and with King Galbatorix’s men chasing him, Eragon and Murtagh flee southwards, seeking refuge with the Varda.

When Eragon finally reaches the Varda, however, he is far from being safe. Many in the Varda want to manipulate Eragon and use him for their own purposes. In addition, Murtagh is imprisoned because the Varda find that he is close to King Galbatorix by lineage. Eragon soon discovers that with the Varda, words have the same influence as weapons and strength. In the most unlikeliest of places, Eragon finds people who seek blessings and advice from him. And when a monster army large enough to completely wipe out the Varda appears seemingly out of nowhere, Eragon is given no rest and time for himself. Even amongst all this chaos and political intrigue, Eragon finally feels at home.

Paolini’s first book, Eragon, demonstrates his exceptional writing skills. I enjoyed reading Eragon very much. I like its suspense, style, and execution. These aspects make the reader actually “live” the life of Eragon; they make the reader worry about what will happen to him, as well as to other characters. The moral of this story is to never give up hope and determination even when it seems that all is lost. Another moral of this story is to keep at something till it is completed and that, when you’ve finally done it; you will feel your best.

© 2010 Gregory Markov

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"The Song of Wandering Aengus" by W.B. Yeats: An Analysis

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Analysis of W. B. Yeats' great early poem "The Tale of Wandering Aengus", a beatiful and romantic, but mysterious, work.

“The Song of Wandering Aengus”, from W.B. Yeats 1899 collection, The Wind Among the Reeds, is one of the best known of the Nobel prize-winning poet’s early works. Like much of Yeats’s work from this time, it draws heavily on Irish mythology, inextricably mixed with more personal themes from the poet’s life.

The deeply symbolic nature of Yeats’s poetry was influenced by three sources: Irish mythology, classical Greek mythology, and the occult symbolism he was exposed to when he joined the magical order known as The Golden Dawn in 1890. In Yeats’s early career, he was heavily involved in collecting Irish folklore, and this informs his poetry of the 1890s.

The Aengus of the title was a god of Irish mythology, one who stayed forever young and lived in a most marvelous palace where no one ever died, and where food and drink was always plentiful. This palace was called Brug na Boinne, and was situated on the banks of the River Boyne. He was also known as Aengus Og (“Aengus the Young”), among several variants.

One of the most famous tales about Aengus, and one that is partly reproduced by Yeats in the poem, involves his love for a young girl called Caer. He became sick with love for her having only seen her in a dream, and after years of searching, finally found her. Caer spent each year alternately as a swan or as a human girl. When Aengus found her, she was a swan, and he plunged into the water beside her and he too turned into a swan. Together they sang the most beautiful songs that put all who heard to sleep. After a year, Caer and Aonghus turned from swans back to their original form.

The obsessive love (“a fire was in my head”), the wandering in search of the briefly-glimpsed maiden, and the animal metamorphosis are common to the poem and the myth. However, in Yeat’s poem the metamorphosis involves a trout, not a swan – though both are related by the association with water. The trout-girl recalls the Irish myth of the maighdean mhara (“maidens of the sea”), who often bewitched men to fall in love with them.

But unlike the Aengus of legend, Yeat’s protagonist is, at the poem’s end, not united with his beloved. Also unlike Aengus, he has grown old. Therefore his expressions of optimism in the final verse ("I will find out where she has gone, and kiss her lips and take her hands") may allude to the afterlife, as in this life he has grown old with fruitless searching. Unlike the eternally young Aengus, Yeats's protagonist is affected by the passing of time. The bittersweet ending implies that he now awaits death, but trusts that in the afterlife he will find the love he has only glimpsed briefly. In death he will be forever young like Aengus.

William B. Yeats

The reference in the final lines to “silver apples of the moon” and “golden apples of the sun” has provoked many interpretations. One source may be the legend that in Aengus’s palace there were, as well as an un-emptying vessel of the best drink and a pig nicely roasted and always available to eat, three trees that always bore fruit. Yeats’s protagonist is again imagining himself in the palace of Aengus, immortal and beloved.

The sun and moon symbolism are important in occult circles. Yeats himself wrote about the lunar influence being the source of all thoughts that are of the community, of instinct and primal coconscious; and the solar influence being responsible for individual thoughts, and rationality.

This indicates that the final end of Aengus’s quest and wandering is the eating of both types of apple, meaning the perfect harmony of the two aspects of his being: his lunar self, which is more instinctual, of the earth and belonging to the collective unconscious, and his solar self, rational, intellectual, and disciplined. In this reading, the "glimmering girl" is not an individual at all, but an aspect of Yeats' psyche, the primitive, carefree aspect, which he is not yet able to access fully, being too "disciplined", too "intellectual".

Of course, the apple, recalling Book of Genesis, is often associated with the sensual, and plucking apples may be equated to enjoying the sensual aspects of life. Ultimately, all of these clues provide several ways of reading “The Song of Wandering Aengus”, and no one interpretation can be advanced as superior to the exclusion of others. Fundamentally, this poem is about the hero's quest that is a motif in so much mythology and literature. What the hero seeks is elusive and there is no logical reason to believe he will find it, but he continues to have faith, and this faith gives his life meaning.

The popularity of this poem is attested to by the number of times it has been set to music, by artists such as Judy Collins, Richie Havens, Donovan and Christy Moore.